Different institutions play a crucial role in order to promote adaptation to climate change in developing countries. As a contribution to the current political debate, in particular in the UNFCCC negotiations, this paper analyses key institutional approaches on the different levels and makes a number of concrete suggestions with a view to optimising the interplay between institutions on the different level.
Although international climate negotiations have made little progress since the largely failed talks of Copenhagen in 2009, especially developing countries have started the race towards low-carbon development. Low-Carbon Development Plans (LCDPs) have been developed that describe goals and measures of the respective nation's climate change efforts and lay a foundation for overall development planning.
One can perhaps say that, with Cancún, the major emerging economies have, to some extent, assumed the lead in the global negotiation process. After Mexico, namely South Africa (next Climate summit in 2011) and Brazil (Rio-plus-20 summit 2012) carry the central responsibility as the hosts of the next major summits.
The climate summit in Cancún agreed on important climate protection packages after a dramatic night session, partly thanks to the sovereign leadership of the Mexican Foreign Minister Patricia Espinosa. Agreed packages include the protection of rain forests, adaptation to climate change for the most vulnerable countries, technology transfer and a Green Fund for financing the above mentioned measures. For the first time in UN history it was officially accepted by all countries to limit the global temperature rise below two degrees Celsius.
Today, Germanwatch and CAN Europe released the sixth annual Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), a joint research project, at the climate summit in Cancún. The CCPI 2011 evaluates and ranks the 57 highest-emitting countries based on their emissions and climate policies. This year, more than 190 experts from the respective countries have assisted in creation of the index by analysing national policies.
With the today published Climate Risk Index 2011 in Cancun, Germanwatch has, for the sixth time, examined which countries are particularly affected by weather extremes. "In 2009, surprisingly, countries such as Chinese Taipei, Saudi Arabia and Australia were also among the ten most affected countries," said Sven Harmeling, author of the CRI at Germanwatch.
Up to the climate summit in Copenhagen, international climate policy followed the strategy to achieve a "big bang" in the form of an international climate agreement covering the commitment period until 2020. At least for the time being, the window of opportunity for such an approach has closed after the moderate results of Copenhagen and the recent political developments in the US.
The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an innovative instrument that enhances transparency in international climate politics. On the basis of standardised criteria the index evaluates and compares the climate protection performances of the 57 countries that, together, are responsible for more than 90 percent of global energy-related CO2 emissions.
Five years before the rallying-point, World leader and country representatives meet in New York on the Millenium Development Goals Summit from 20-22nd September.
September 2010, the German government presented the draft of its energy concept. It is marked by striking contradictions. In view of the large energy utilities’ financially strengthened role and the shift of competition rules into their direction, it is doubtful whether the concept can be successful.