Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) has involved external experts or stakeholders measuring performance of a project or an activity against preset indicators, using standardized procedures and tools. However, with growing emphasis on participatory approaches towards development, there has been recognition that M&E should also be inclusive and consultative. Participation, defined as a process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them, could strengthen M&E. Participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) is defined as a process through which stakeholders at various levels engage in monitoring and/or evaluating a particular project, programme, activity or policy, share control over their content, the process and the results, as well as engage in taking or identifying corrective actions.
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) requires that financed programmes, projects and activities are regularly monitored for impact, efficiency and effectiveness in line with rules and procedures established by the Board. The Fund encourages the use of participatory monitoring involving targeted stakeholders and calls on Accredited Entities (AEs) to include at the project/programme level participatory monitoring approaches. This translates into the expectation that they involve communities and local stakeholders, including civil society organizations (CSOs), at all stages of the project/programme cycle.